Report

Weekly Threat Report 3rd November 2017

Created:  03 Nov 2017
Updated:  03 Nov 2017
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This report is drawn from recent open source reporting.

Fake speeding notices deliver malware

Police forces around the UK are warning motorists not to be taken in by a phishing email falsely informing them that they need to pay a speeding fine. The realistic-looking email, entitled ‘Notice of Prosecution’, claims to have ‘photographic’ evidence, but clicking on the associated link will upload banking malware to the victim’s device.

The email appears official, with the logos of either the local police force or ‘gov.uk’, but there are several features that indicate that it is fake. Spelling and grammatical errors are fairly obvious, but the speed at which the vehicle was allegedly caught is unrealistic, e.g. travelling at 89mph in an area with a 25mph speed limit.  Phishing emails rely on several factors to be successful, including evading spam filters, the appearance of credibility, and being able to make the recipient take action immediately.

The police have advised that any ‘Notice of Prosecution’ would be posted to the vehicle owner’s address and never sent in an email. They also advised people to delete the email without clicking on any links.

There have been motoring and phishing-themed phishing email campaigns conducted in the past, with Action Fraud highlighting a previous one in December 2016. 

Read the NCSC guidance for avoiding phishing attacks.


Code-signing certificates worth more than guns on the Dark Web

An investigation by a company specialising in identity protection solutions, into the sale of code-signing certificates on the Dark Web suggests they are selling for up to $1,200, making them more expensive than fake driver’s licences, stolen credit cards, commissioning a targeted cyber attack, or even buying a handgun. This relatively high price presumably reflects customer demand.

This is not the first time that security researchers have highlighted the issue of stolen or fraudulently obtained code-signing certificates. Since at least 2011, they have noted a trend for both cyber criminals and APT cyber actors to sign their malware using stolen or fraudulently obtained certificates to bypass security measures. Signed code tends to be treated as trusted and some operating systems will flag up, or refuse to run, code that is not signed.

Over the years, attackers have managed to sign their malicious executables with certificates obtained by a variety of methods – reportedly stealing them from technology companies (including some well-known names), penetrating the networks of companies and using their signing facilities, or applying for certificates in the names of fake companies or real companies who have no need for them. As far back as 2010, the destructive worm Stuxnet included components that were signed with stolen certificates. More recently, the cyber actors who corrupted an update of clean-up tool CCleaner managed to get the update signed.

Amongst other things, this highlights the fact that, when attackers do manage to penetrate a network, they will often seek out things that facilitate further intrusions – like passwords (not only password caches, but sometimes also emails containing passwords or access codes), cookies, digital certificates and keys. System administrators should make sure they know where these are located.

The NCSC has published guidance to help organisations protect their End User Devices which, when deployed correctly, can help mitigate the risks of malware attacks.


The Dark Overlord – Systematic cyber-enabled extortion

A cyber crime group called ‘The Dark Overlord’ has claimed responsibility for conducting cyber-enabled extortion campaigns in recent weeks. Victims include a London-based plastic surgery clinic and a Hollywood production studio, both of which are believed to have a number of high-profile clients. The group has a history of hacking organisations to obtain sensitive information before demanding money in exchange for not leaking it into the public domain. They leak snippets of data to the media to encourage them to report on their activity. This is aimed at “proving” that a breach has taken place, and increases the pressure on the victim to pay the ransom. ‘The Dark Overlord’ has been responsible for indiscriminately targeting health institutions, schools and media production companies over the last year.

Any organisation that deals with sensitive personal information (e.g. medical institutions, law firms) is at a higher risk of being targeted, and owes a particular duty of care to its clients because of the risk of severe emotional distress if client data is made public.  Whilst evidence of the stolen data is often provided, the volume and sensitivity of the data may be exaggerated to maximise impact. This may inspire other cyber extortionists to adopt a similar methodology, especially as new opportunities present themselves due to an increasing amount of sensitive data being stored online. Any data breach and the associated media exposure may cause significant reputational damage and loss of business.

Furthermore, breaches can impact systems that have not been breached if a user has a shared password between the services. The NCSC has produced guidance on passwords and how password managers can help users.

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